[solved] MySQL server not Starting


MAMP headache on Mac

If you can’t figure out why the MySQL Server won’t turn on if you’re using MAMP to do local development work, here are two ways to go about it.


What worked for me

  1. Quit MAMP.

2. In the Finder, go to and delete the log files (in my case ib_logfile0 and ib_logfile1).


3. Restart MAMP.

So I tried the below fix and kept getting

No matching processes were found

What others used that didn’t work for me

Quit MAMP.

  1. Open Terminal (either open Spotlight (Cmd+Space) and type “terminal” or you can find Terminal in the /Applications/Utilities/folder)
  2. Then type this (will allow you to kill the mysqld process with security privileges of another users such as root)
ps aux | grep mysql 
lsof -i 
sudo killall -9 mysqld

4. Restart MAMP

Happy Developer!!

How to Fix: Something went wrong. This page didn’t load Google Maps correctly. See the JavaScript console for technical details.

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So after finishing the website for a client, I get a call about the maps not showing. Felt very embarrassed about it. First, let’s find out exactly why it’s showing. There are multiple things that can cause it. Notice the last part of the error says to open the JavaScript console for “technical details”. That’s what we need.

Oops! Something went wrong. This page didn’t load Google Maps correctly. See the JavaScript console for technical details.


You can open the JavaScript console in your browser with a few keystrokes. There is an excellent answer on StackOverflow that tells you plainly how to open the JavaScript console in different browsers. After doing that, you should be able to find an entry looking something like this.

Google Maps Console Error

Listed below are the most common errors reported by our users:

  • MissingKeyMapError – An API key is not being used
  • RefererNotAllowedMapError – Key doesn’t allow your URL
  • ApiNotActivatedMapError – API is not enabled
  • InvalidKeyMapError – The API key used is incorrect

Now that you know exactly what is causing the error, you can fix it. Here are fixes for the most common Google Maps API errors shown in the console.

How to Fix MissingKeyMapError

MissingKeyMapError means you are not using an API key and will need to sign up for one then configure your website to use it. Websites that started using Google Maps on or after June 22, 2016 require an API key in order for maps to show.

Create a Google Maps API Key

Follow these steps to create and implement a free Google Maps API Key.

  1. Start Google’s Get a Key process then log into your Google account (or create one).
  2. Click Agree and continue to create a new project representing your website.
    Google Maps API Register
  3. Under Accept requests, add the two entries below (replacing yourname.comwith your own domain). Type the first entry then hit enter on your keyboard to add it. Repeat to add the second entry. Having both entries (with asterisks) will help ensure your maps work on any URL of your website.

    Google Maps Create API Key

  4. Click Create then copy your key that is now shown on the screen.
    Google Maps API Key Done
  5. If you’re using our WordPress plugin, go to Settings  Theme Option and paste your key into the Google Maps API Key field then click Save Changes. Otherwise, do similar according to the product you’re using.
    Google Maps API Key Paste


Screen Shot 2017-08-28 at 14.40.46

Note: Google says it can take up to 5 minutes for your key to become active. Mine came up immediately.

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How to download Torrents on Mac without Torrent clients using Folx


Hi guys,

As you might guess, I am now working on a Mac, to be specific an iMac 21.5 inch, and definitely old habits die hard. How can we survive without torrents? Just how? I think there should be a rehab for seeders and leeches… Just a thought. How will guys turn into the best developers and designers if not without torrents when they are totally broke? Not that am being biased. Also not forgetting people who might, chances are nearing nil, become movie directors because of the many movies and series they torrented every release date. Anyway, I will probably be causing a fluctuation of the internet speeds, but what the heck! Let’s do this!

So you organisation or institution has blocked torrents. How could they??? You ask. Well, you are hogging the internet and things can’t move. But where there is a will, there is always a way.

  1. Search like a Pro!

I know you heard the sad news the YIFY will no longer be sorting us those small-sized files which are very HD. I insist, V-E-R-Y  HD. Moving on swiftly, you need to get skills of how to search on Google like a pro. So, this is what you will be doing, I have done it everyday.

Key this in:movie name – site:torrent site

Screen Shot 2016-02-19 at 5.49.04 PM

2. Try to always go with the first indexed result. After that, click on download then let it download with Folx.

Screen Shot 2016-02-19 at 5.54.36 PM

It will download the “.torrent”

Screen Shot 2016-02-19 at 5.54.54 PM

It will find the torrent files and give a popup for the torrent files like what a torrent client does

Screen Shot 2016-02-19 at 5.55.12 PM

You can see the file has seeding and downloading speeds.

3. Sit back and relax as it is downloading.

Now we can listen to music, watch movies and play games. But don’t forget the free accounts have limits.

Oscobo : Privacy-focused search engine


Oscobo is the first UK-based Privacy Search Engine, providing consumers with pure search, nothing else. It does not track or store personal data, protecting users from unwanted profiling. Oscobo was founded in 2015 by two senior technology executives, Fred Cornell (ex-Yahoo) and Rob Perin (ex-BlackBerry), who believe that personal data should stay just that, personal. It does not place cookies and does not view a users’ IP address – Oscobo does not know who the user is and does not want to know.

Oscobo is headquartered in London.

This browser can be used to look up your prospective employees. I looked myself up, weird.

Try it because I find it very useful without ads plus it is showing my tweets 🙂 .


You can add it to your Chrome Extensions.


Ngeshlew Oscobo Search

How to Solve WordPress Could Not Create Directory

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WordPress is an interesting platform to build your website but when you get this kind of errors, you feel like plucking your hair off your head because nothing is happening. I have tried like 10 solutions but never got it right until now.

Am sure you have gotten something like this when trying to update your plugin or upgrading WordPress.

This is the error for the Upgrading of WordPress

Downloading update from http://wordpress.org/wordpress-4.4.zip…

Unpacking the update…

Could not create directory.

Installation Failed

This is the error for the plugin update

  Downloading update from http://downloads.wordpress.org/plugin/your-plugin.…

  Unpacking the update…

  Could not create directory. /wp-content/upgrade/yourplugin.tmp
  Return to Plugins page

Step 1:

Plugin: Just change the permission of /public_html/wp-content and /public_html/wp-content/plugins to 775. If the update succeed just revert it back to its default permission.

Upgrading: Just change the permission of /public_html/wp-content and /public_html/wp-content/upgrade to 775. If the upgrade succeed just revert it back to its default permission.

chmod 775 /var/www/html/wordpress/wp-content/

chmod 775 /var/www/html/wordpress/wp-content/plugins

chmod 775 /var/www/html/wordpress/wp-content/upgrade

Step 2:

Add the proper group permissions most likely to the same that Apache is running under.

ps aux | grep apache 

You will see the Apache user group on the left.

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See my example of how I did it:

Screen Shot 2015-12-15 at 11.37.13 AM

Step 3:

Now change your WordPress folder to the same user group, you can do this in a parent folder or sub folder but for sanity it usually best for parent folder, use -R to recursively do it.

chown -R apache:apache /path/to/wp-root-folder
  • To login on windows use Putty
  • Enter your hostname and port
  • Choose connection type depending on server settings
  • Click open

If you try to chown and get denied you will need root privileges , type sudo su and your password.

Now try updating the plugin or Upgrading WordPress.

Awesome!!! Now we have solved that issue.

Solution by Wyck

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If it helped you out, please don’t forget to like and share 🙂

No module named SimpleHTTPServer [Error]

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I wanted to set up Python SimpleHTTPServer on my Windows 8 and I had Python installed on my computer. I was executing the following command

python -m SimpleHTTPServer 

Or(if you want to specify which port to open the application from)

python -m SimpleHTTPServer [<portNo>]

But I got the error:

C:\Python34\python.exe: No module named SimpleHTTPServer


Because I am using Python 3 the module SimpleHTTPServer has been replaced by http.server at least in Windows. So the following worked for me

python -m http.server [<portNo>]


You will see the below screen. To test if it is working, go to http://localhost:8000/ and you should see a web page opening up.

final working

Hope that helped. Thanks!

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Lima Kilo

How to fix WampServer – Could not execute menu item (Internal error)

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After installing Wampserver, wanted to run a test.php script to confirm that Wamp is working. Then I got an Internal Error. This is a tutorial to fix Wampserver – Could not execute menu item (internal error). The service has not been started.


This is happening because of the test port (80) clash with other program.

To see the issue click on Wampserver icon and go to Apache.


Now go to Service and click on Test Port 80.

How-to-fix-Wampserver-image-3You will see the main reason of Wampserver internal error.


To fix the error follow these steps:

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Step 1:

Go to Apache >> httpd.conf and open it.


Step 2:

Find out these lines

Listen [::0]:80

Step 3:

Now remove 80 with 8080 and save the file.

Listen [::0]:8080

Step 4:
Click on Wampserver icon and restart all services.
Step 5:
You will see green or orange Wampserver icon.
Step 6:
How-to-fix-Wampserver-image-8Thank you for reading!
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If it helped you out, please don’t forget to like and share 🙂

Lima Kilo

How do VLANs work?


Virtual LANs (VLANs) are an abstraction to permit a single physical network to emulate the functionality of multiple parallel physical networks. This is handy because there may be situations where you need the functionality of multiple parallel physical networks but you’d rather not spend the money on buying parallel hardware. I’ll be speaking about Ethernet VLANs in this answer (even though other networking technologies can support VLANs) and I won’t be diving deeply into every nuance.

A Contrived Example and a Problem

As a purely contrived example scenario, imagine you own an office building that you lease to tenants. As a benefit of the lease, each tenant will get live Ethernet jacks in each room of the office. You buy a Ethernet switch for each floor, wire them up to jacks in each office on that floor, and wire all the switches together.
Initially, you lease space to two different tenants– one on the floor 1 and one on 2. Each of these tenants configures their computers w/ static IPv4 addresses. Both tenants use different TCP/IP subnets and everything seems to work just fine.

Later, a new tenant rents half of floor 3 and brings up one of these new-fangled DHCP servers. Time passes and the 1st floor tenant decides to jump on the DHCP bandwagon, too. This is the point when things start to go awry. The floor 3 tenants report that some of their computers are getting “funny” IP addresses from a machine that isn’t their DHCP server. Soon, the floor 1 tenants report the same thing.

DHCP is a protocol that takes advantage of the broadcast capability of Ethernet to allow client computers to obtain IP addresses dynamically. Because the tenants are all sharing the same physical Ethernet network they share the same broadcast domain. A broadcast packet sent from any computer in the network will flood out all the switch ports to every other computer. The DHCP servers on floors 1 and 3 will receive all requests for IP address leases and will, effectively, duel to see who can answer first. This is clearly not the behavior you intend your tenants to experience. This is the behavior, though, of a “flat” Ethernet network w/o any VLANs.

Worse still, a tenant on floor 2 acquires this “Wireshark” software and reports that, from time to time, they see traffic coming out of their switch that references computers and IP addresses that they’ve never heard of. One of their employees has even figured out that he can communicate with these other computers by changing the IP address assigned to his PC from to! Presumably, he’s just a few short steps away from performing “unauthorized pro-bono system administration services” for one of the other tenants. Not good.

Potential Solutions

You need a solution! You could just pull the plugs between the floors and that would cut off all unwanted communication! Yeah! That’s the ticket…

That might work, except that you have a new tenant who will be renting half of the basement and the unoccupied half of floor 3. If there isn’t a connection between the floor 3 switch and the basement switch the new tenant won’t be able to get communication between their computers that will be spread around both of their floors. Pulling the plugs isn’t the answer. Worse still, the new tenant is bringing yet anotherone of these DHCP servers!

You flirt with the idea of buying physically separate sets of Ethernet switches for each tenant, but seeing as how your building has 30 floors, any of which can be subdivided up to 4 ways, the potential rats nest of floor-to-floor cables between massive numbers of parallel Ethernet switches could be a nightmare, not to mention expensive. If only there was a way to make a single physical Ethernet network act like it was multiple physical Ethernet networks, each with its own broadcast domain.

VLANs to the Rescue

VLANs are an answer to this messy problem. VLANs permit you to subdivide an Ethernet switch into logically disparate virtual Ethernet switches. This allows a single Ethernet switch to act as though it’s multiple physical Ethernet switches. In the case of your subdivided floor 3, for example, you could configure your 48 port switch such that the lower 24 ports are in a given VLAN (which we’ll call VLAN 12) and the higher 24 ports are in a given VLAN (which we’ll call VLAN 13). When you create the VLANs on your switch you’ll have to assign them some type of VLAN name or number. The numbers I’m using here are mostly arbitrary, so don’t worry about what specific numbers I choose.

Once you’ve divided the floor 3 switch into VLANs 12 and 13 you find that the new floor 3 tenant can plug in their DHCP server to one of the ports assigned to VLAN 13 and a PC plugged into a port assigned to VLAN 12 doesn’t get an IP address from the new DHCP server. Excellent! Problem solved!

Oh, wait… how do we get that VLAN 13 data down to the basement?

VLAN Communication Between Switches

Your half-floor 3 and half-basement tenant would like to connect computers in the basement to their servers on floor 3. You could run a cable directly from one of the ports assigned to their VLAN in the floor 3 switch to the basement and life would be good, right?

In the early days of VLANs (pre-802.1Q standard) you might do just that. The entire basement switch would be, effectively, part of VLAN 13 (the VLAN you’ve opted to assign to the new tenant on floor 3 and the basement) because that basement switch would be “fed” by a port on floor 3 that’s assigned to VLAN 13.

This solution would work until you rent the other half of the basement to your floor 1 tenant who also wants to have communication between their 1st floor and basement computers. You could split the basement switch using VLANs (into, say, VLANS 2 and 13) and run a cable from floor 1 to a port assigned to VLAN 2 in the basement, but you better judgement tells you that this could quickly become a rat’s nest of cables (and is only going to get worse). Splitting switches using VLANs is good, but having to run multiple cables from other switches to ports which are members of different VLANs seems messy. Undoubtedly, if you had to divide the basement switch 4 ways between tenants who also had space on higher floors you’d use 4 ports on the basement switch just to terminate “feeder” cables from upstairs VLANs.

It should now be clear that some type of generalized method of moving traffic from multiple VLANs between switches on a single cable is needed. Just adding more cables between switches to support connections between different VLANs isn’t a scalable strategy. Eventually, with enough VLANs, you’ll be eating up all the ports on your switches with these inter-VLAN / inter-switch connections. What’s needed is a way to carry the packets from multiple VLANs along a single connection– a “trunk” connection between switches.

Up to this point, all the switch ports we’ve talked about are called “access” ports. That is, these ports are dedicated to accessing a single VLAN. The devices plugged into these ports have no special configuration themselves. These devices don’t “know” that any VLANs are present. Frames the client devices send are delivered to the switch which then takes care of making sure that the frame is only sent to ports assigned as members of the VLAN assigned to the port where the frame entered the switch. If a frame enters the switch on a port assigned as a member of VLAN 12 then the switch will only send that frame out ports that are members of VLAN 12. The switch “knows” the VLAN number assigned to a port from which it receives a frame and somehow knows to only deliver this frame out ports of the same VLAN.

If there were some way for a switch to share the VLAN number associated with a given frame to other switches then the other switch could properly handle delivering that frame only to the appropriate destination ports. This is what the 802.1Q VLAN tagging protocol does. (It’s worth noting that, prior to 802.1Q, some vendors made up their own standards for VLAN tagging and inter-switch trunking. For the most part these pre-standard methods have all been supplanted by 802.1Q.)

When you have two VLAN-aware switches connected to each other and you want those switches to deliver frames between each other to the proper VLAN you connect those switches using “trunk” ports. This involves changing the configuration of a port on each switch from “access” mode to “trunk” mode (in a very basic configuration).

When a port is configured in trunk mode each frame that the switch sends out that port will have a “VLAN tag” included in the frame. This “VLAN tag” wasn’t part of the original frame that the client sent. Rather, this tag is added by the sending switch prior to sending the frame out the trunk port. This tag denotes the VLAN number associated with the port from which the frame originated.

The receiving switch can look at the tag to determine which VLAN the frame originated from and, based on that information, forward the frame out only ports that are assigned to the originating VLAN. Because the devices connected to “access” ports aren’t aware that VLANs are being used the “tag” information must be stripped from the frame before it’s sent out a port configured in access mode. This stripping of the tag information causes the entire VLAN trunking process to be hidden from client devices since the frame they receive will not bear any VLAN tag information.

Before you configure VLANs in real life I’d recommend configuring a port for trunk mode on a test switch and monitoring the traffic being sent out that port using a sniffer (like Wireshark). You can create some sample traffic from another computer, plugged into an access port, and see that the frames leaving the trunk port will, in fact, be larger than the frames being send by your test computer. You’ll see the VLAN tag information in the frames in Wireshark. I find that it’s worth actually seeing what happens in a sniffer. Reading up on the 802.1Q tagging standard is also a decent thing to do at this point (especially since I’m not talking about things like “native VLANs” or double-tagging).

VLAN Configuration Nightmares and the Solution

As you rent more and more space in your building the number of VLANs grows. Each time you add a new VLAN you find that you have to logon to increasingly more Ethernet switches and add that VLAN to the list. Wouldn’t it be great if there were some method by which you could add that VLAN to a single configuration manifest and have it automatically populate the VLAN configuration of each switch?

Protocols like Cisco’s proprietary “VLAN Trunking Protocol” (VTP) or the standards-based “Multiple VLAN Registration Protocol” (MVRP– previously spelled GVRP) fulfill this function. In a network using these protocols a single VLAN creation or deletion entry results in protocol messages being sent to all switches in the network. That protocol message communicates the change in VLAN configuration to the rest of the switches which, in turn, modify their VLAN configurations. VTP and MVRP aren’t concerned with which specific ports are configured as access ports for specific VLANs, but rather are useful in communicating the creation or deletion of VLANs to all the switches.

When you’ve gotten comfortable with VLANs you’ll probably want to go back and read about “VLAN pruning”, which is associated with protocols like VTP and MVRP. For now it’s nothing to be tremendously concerned with. (The VTP article on Wikipedia has a nice diagram that explains VLAN pruning and the benefits therewith.)

When Do You Use VLANs In Real Life?

Before we go much further it’s important to think about real life rather than contrived examples. In lieu of duplicating the text of another answer here I’ll refer you to my answer re: when to create VLANs. It’s not necessarily “beginner-level”, but it’s worth taking a look at now since I’m going to make reference to it briefly before moving back to a contrived example.

For the “tl;dr” crowd (who surely have all stopped reading at this point, anyway), the gist of that link above is: Create VLANs to make broadcast domains smaller or when you want to segregate traffic for some particular reason (security, policy, etc). There aren’t really any other good reasons to use VLANs.

In our example we’re using VLANs to limit broadcast domains (to keep protocols like DHCP working right) and, secondarily, because we want isolation between the various tenants’ networks.

An Aside re: IP Subnets and VLANs

Generally speaking there is a typically a one-to-one relationship between VLANs and IP subnets as a matter of convenience, to facilitate isolation, and because of how the ARP protocol works.

As we saw at the beginning of this answer two different IP subnets can be used on the same physical Ethernet without issue. If you’re using VLANs to shrink broadcast domains you won’t want to share the same VLAN with two different IP subnets since you’ll be combining their ARP and other broadcast traffic.

If you’re using VLANs to segregate traffic for security or policy reasons then you also probably won’t want to combine multiple subnets in the same VLAN since you’ll be defeating the purpose of isolation.

IP uses a broadcast-based protocol, Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), to map IP addresses onto physical (Ethernet MAC) addresses. Since ARP is broadcast based, assigning different parts of the same IP subnet to different VLANs would be problematic because hosts in one VLAN wouldn’t be able to receive ARP replies from hosts in the other VLAN, since broadcasts aren’t forwarded between VLANs. You could solve this “problem” by using proxy-ARP but, ultimately, unless you have a really good reason to need to split an IP subnet across multiple VLANs it’s better not to do so.

One Last Aside: VLANs and Security

Finally, it’s worth noting that VLANs aren’t a great security device. Many Ethernet switches have bugs that permit frames originating from one VLAN to be sent out ports assigned to another VLAN. Ethernet switch manufacturers have worked hard to fix these bugs, but it’s doubtful that there will ever be a completely bug free implementation.

In the case of our contrived example the floor 2 employee who is moments away from providing free systems administration “services” to another tenant might be stopped from doing so by isolating his traffic into a VLAN. He might also figure out how to exploit bugs in the switch firmware, though, to allow his traffic to “leak” out onto another tenant’s VLAN as well.

Metro Ethernet providers are relying, increasingly, on VLAN tagging functionality and the isolation that switches provide. It’s not fair to say that there’s no security offered by using VLANs. It is fair to say, though, that in situations with untrusted Internet connections or DMZ networks it’s probably better to use physically separate switches to carry this “touchy” traffic rather than VLANs on switches that also carry your trusted “behind the firewall” traffic.

Bringing Layer 3 into the Picture

So far everything this answer has talked about relates to layer 2– Ethernet frames. What happens if we start bringing layer 3 into this?

Let’s go back to the contrived building example. You’ve embraced VLANs opted to configure each tenant’s ports as members of separate VLANs. You’ve configured trunk ports such that each floor’s switch can exchange frames tagged with the originating VLAN number to the switches on the floor above and below. One tenant can have computers spread across multiple floors but, because of your adept VLAN configuring skills, these physically distributed computers can all appear to be part of the same physical LAN.

You’re so full of your IT accomplishments that you decide to start offering Internet connectivity to your tenants. You buy a fat Internet pipe and a router. You float the idea to all your tenants and two of them immediately buy-in. Luckily for you your router has three Ethernet ports. You connect one port to your fat Internet pipe, another port to a switch port assigned for access to the first tenant’s VLAN, and the other to a port assigned for access to the second tenant’s VLAN. You configure your router’s ports with IP addresses in each tenant’s network and the tenants start accessing the Internet through your service! Revenue increases and you’re happy.

Soon, though, another tenant decides to get onto your Internet offering. You’re out of ports on your router, though. What to do?

Fortunately you bought a router that supports configuring “virtual sub-interfaces” on its Ethernet ports. In short this functionality allows the router to receive and interpret frames tagged with originating VLAN numbers, and to have virtual (that is, non-physical) interfaces configured with IP addresses appropriate for each VLAN it will communicate with. In effect this permits you to “multiplex” a single Ethernet port on the router such that it appears to function as multiple physical Ethernet ports.

You attach your router to a trunk port on one of your switches and configure virtual sub-interfaces corresponding to each tenant’s IP addressing scheme. Each virtual sub-interface is configured with the VLAN number assigned to each Customer. When a frame leaves the trunk port on the switch, bound for the router, it will carry a tag with the originating VLAN number (since it’s a trunk port). The router will interpret this tag and treat the packet as though it arrived on a dedicated physical interface corresponding to that VLAN. Likewise, when the router sends a frame to the switch in response to a request it will add a VLAN tag to the frame such that the switch knows to which VLAN the response frame should be delivered. In effect, you’ve configured the router to “appear” as a physical device in multiple VLANs while only using a single physical connection between the switch and the router.

Routers on Sticks and Layer 3 Switches

Using virtual sub-interfaces you’ve been able to sell Internet connectivity to all your tenants without having to buy a router that has 25+ Ethernet interfaces. You’re fairly happy with your IT accomplishments so you respond positively when two of your tenants come to you with a new request.

These tenants have opted to “partner” on a project and they want to allow access from client computers in one tenant’s office (one given VLAN) to a server computer in the other tenant’s office (another VLAN). Since they’re both Customers of your Internet service it’s a fairly simple change of an ACL in your core Internet router (on which there is a virtual sub-interface configured for each of these tenant’s VLANs) to allow traffic to flow between their VLANs as well as to the Internet from their VLANs. You make the change and send the tenants on their way.

The next day you receive complaints from both tenants that access between the client computers in one office to the server in the second office is very slow. The server and client computers both have gigabit Ethernet connections to your switches but the files only transfer at around 45Mbps which, coincidentally, is roughly half of the speed with which your core router connects to its switch. Clearly the traffic flowing from the source VLAN to the router and back out from the router to the destination VLAN is being bottlenecked by the router’s connection to the switch.

What you’ve done with your core router, allowing it to route traffic between VLANs, is commonly known as “router on a stick” (an arguably stupidly whimsical euphemism). This strategy can work well, but traffic can only flow between the VLANs up to the capacity of the router’s connection to the switch. If, somehow, the router could be conjoined with the “guts” of the Ethernet switch itself it could route traffic even faster (since the Ethernet switch itself, per the manufacturer’s spec sheet, is capable of switching over 2Gbps of traffic).

A “layer 3 switch” is an Ethernet switch that, logically speaking, contains a router buried inside itself. I find it tremendously helpful to think of a layer 3 switch as having a tiny and fast router hiding inside the switch. Further, I would advise you to think about the routing functionality as a distinctly separate function from the Ethernet switching function that the layer 3 switch provides. A layer 3 switch is, for all intents and purposes, two distinct devices wrapped up in a single chassis.

The embedded router in a layer 3 switch is connected to the switch’s internal switching fabric at a speed that, typically, allows for routing of packets between VLANs at or near wire-speed. Analogously to the virtual sub-interfaces you configured on your “router on a stick” this embedded router inside the layer 3 switch can be configured with virtual interfaces that “appear” to be “access” connections into each VLAN. Rather than being called virtual sub-interfaces these logical connections from the VLANs into the embedded router inside a layer 3 switch are called Switch Virtual Interfaces (SVIs). In effect, the embedded router inside a layer 3 switch has some quantity of “virtual ports” that can be “plugged in” to any of the VLANs on the switch.

The embedded router performs the same way as a physical router except that it typically doesn’t have all of the same dynamic routing protocol or access-control list (ACL) features as a physical router (unless you’ve bought a really nice layer 3 switch). The embedded router has the advantage, however, of being very fast and not having a bottleneck associated with a physical switch port that it’s plugged into.

In the case of our example here with the “partnering” tenants you might opt to obtain a layer 3 switch, plug it into trunk ports such that traffic from both Customers VLANs reaches it, then configure SVIs with IP addresses and VLAN memberships such that it “appears” in both Customers VLANs. Once you’ve done that it’s just a matter of tweaking the routing table on your core router and the embedded router in the layer 3 switch such that traffic flowing between the tenants’ VLANs is routed by the embedded router inside the layer 3 switch versus the “router on a stick”.

Using a layer 3 switch doesn’t mean that there still won’t be bottlenecks associated with the bandwidth of the trunk ports that interconnect your switches. This is an orthogonal concern to those that VLANs address, though. VLANs have nothing to do with bandwidth problems. Typically bandwidth problems are solved by either obtaining higher-speed inter-switch connections or using link-aggregation protocols to “bond” several lower-speed connections together into a virtual higher-speed connection. Unless all the devices creating frames to be routed by the embedded router inside the later 3 switch are, themselves, plugged into ports directly on the layer 3 switch you still need to worry about the bandwidth of the trunks between the switches. A layer 3 switch isn’t a panacea, but it’s typically faster than a “router on a stick”.

Dynamic VLANs

Lastly, there is a function in some switches to provide dynamic VLAN membership. Rather than assigning a given port to be an access port for a given VLAN the port’s configuration (access or trunk, and for which VLANs) can be altered dynamically when a device is connected. Dynamic VLANs are a more advanced topic but knowing that the functionality exists can be helpful.

The functionality varies between vendors but typically you can configure dynamic VLAN membership based on the MAC address of the connected device, 802.1X authentication status of the device, proprietary and standards-based protocols (CDP and LLDP, for example, to allow IP phones to “discover” the VLAN number for voice traffic), IP subnet assigned to the client device, or Ethernet protocol type.


By Evan Anderson

TEDx Nairobi 2014: A WasTED World?! Dec. 6 2014 @ Catholic University of Eastern Africa


This event will be mind-blowing. If you miss out, there is always next year.

Nairobi Now :: arts, culture and events

Save the World

Once every year, the TED experience comes to our city at the TEDxNairobi event. This year’s TEDxNairobi will be held on December 6th at the Catholic University of East Africa (CUEA) in Karen. The event will run from 9:30 am to 6:00 pm. This is a registration-only event strictly limited to 500 participants, so please register today.

TED stands for Technology, Entertainment, Design – three areas that are collectively shaping the cutting edge of our horizons. The fascinating and passionate TEDTalks have reached over a billion views through ted.com, enlightening audiences worldwide with their powerful ideas. TEDxNairobi operates under a license from TED and is a self-organized event that creates a platform for international and local speakers to bring the TED experience to Nairobi.

In this our fifth year, we have decided to provoke more complex conversations with some brilliant minds by using the theme of “A WasTED World?!” Because…

View original post 77 more words

What are the most difficult things people have to learn in their 20s?


Answer by Rich Tatum:

Here are some things I really, really wish I knew when I was twenty.

  • Love hurts, but not as much as not loving.
  • The friendships you nurture will have a greater effect on your life than where you work or what you earn.
  • You are not your job. You are not your bankroll. You are not the sum of your possessions.
  • The company does not love you. It has no heart. You are replaceable. Keep your parachute handy.
  • Few decisions will ever shape your future life more than who you choose to marry. To marry well, you must choose well.
  • Love is a commitment.
  • Your passions will grow out of your values. Make early, wise choices to value what (and who) is good, trustworthy, and praiseworthy.
  • Integrity preserved is honor won.
  • Rejoice in your health. It fades fast.
  • Find a passion. Pick a hobby, own it: photography, juggling—whatever. Get your 10K hours of perfect practice in early and change your life.
  • Don’t bother comparing yourself to others—this only leads to heartbreak, anger, and disappointment.
  • Most disappointments arise from unmet expectations. Set realistic expectations for yourself, based on your strengths, then strive to exceed them.
  • Don’t drive others to meet expectations they’ve committed to — lead, inspire, and help them do it.
  • Don’t set expectations for others when they have not or cannot commit to them.
  • Expectations you never communicate and negotiate will rarely be met—except by accident.
  • Don’t complain. Either change your situation, learn to cope, or change perspective.
  • Don’t worry about getting a big salary in your youth: first learn to execute tasks with skill, excellence, and grace.
  • Little stuff matters—even in lowly jobs. The boss notices—and even if not, your peers and colleagues will.
  • Ultimately, privacy is a myth: God sees everything. The cloud records everything. NSA files everything. So, live transparently and don’t waste useless energy hiding failures.
  • Don’t look down on others because they don’t have what you didn’t earn: your intellect, your beauty, and your culture of birth are undeserved gifts. Stay humble.
  • Failure is an opportunity: no great man or woman ever achieved significance without great failures. Fail forward.
  • Never withhold an apology when it’s merited. Deliver it quickly, sincerely, and personally—before resentment festers.
  • You don’t need to nurture old guilt when you’re forgiven. But remembering the shame can help you avoid repeats.
  • Mere belief in anything signifies little more than assent: trust and behavior reveal where true convictions lie.
  • The main thing you need to do quickly is to stop doing things quickly. Trade hurry for calm, confidence, and precision.
  • Everybody needs an editor. Everybody. Especially editors.
  • Get your work done first so you can play without guilt. Even better, make work play and the fun never ends!
  • If you want to develop your passion and gift, stop worrying about the things you do poorly. Go with your strengths!
  • Avoid fights. Seriously. Avoid them like a plague: nobody wins in a fight, even if you walk away unscathed. But when a fight picks you, leave everything on the mat and give it your all. Hold nothing back.
  • If you’re bored, you’re doing it wrong.
  • The skills that will help your career most are the abilities to assimilate, communicate, and persuade. Keep learning.
  • Nothing in this life—no pain, no agony, no failure—compares to the eternal joy of Heaven. Live in light of eternity.
  • Protect your joy. Nothing is easier to lose by over-thinking, overanalyzing, and second-guessing. On the other hand, always consider the long-term consequences of your choices: stupid decisions made in the moment can rob you of years of joy and happiness.
  • Your purpose in life determines how you frame events. You can maintain your joy in the most dire circumstances if you find meaning for your life. Dig deep.
  • It truly matters what you think about. Think well by reading good books, building good, loving relationships, having good conversation, and imitating great people.

I’m still learning — in fact I haven’t fully appreciated most of the list I made, myself. And I’m still adding to it. But I’m getting better.


What are the most difficult things people have to learn in their 20s?

Office Remote App-Turn Your Phone To A Smart Remote


Best App for Presentation… technology


Office Remote turns your phone into a smart remote that interacts with Microsoft Office on your PC. The app lets you control Word, Excel, and PowerPoint from across the room, so you can walk around freely during presentations. With Office Remote, you can start your PowerPoint presentation, advance the slides, see your speaker notes, and control an on-screen laser pointer with a touch of your finger — all from your phone. You can also navigate between Excel worksheets and graphs, and control data slicers from the palm of your hand. And you can scroll through a Word document or quickly jump to specific sections or comments.


– Jump to the next, previous, and last slide
– View slide thumbnails and jump to a slide
– View speaker notes on phone
– View presentation timer and slide numbers
– Laser pointer using touch on your phone
– Change…

View original post 73 more words

How to Install Drivers for Canon Printers PIXMA IP Series on Ubuntu 12.04 – 14.04


Canon is the largest printer manufacturer, but it does not have drivers for every printer model, running on Linux.

I will show you how to install the Ubuntu drivers for Canon IP Series Printers, on Ubuntu 14.04 Trusty Tahr, Ubuntu 13.10 Saucy Salamander, Ubuntu 13.04 Raring Ringtail, Ubuntu 12.10 Quantal Quetzal and Ubuntu 12.04 Precise Pangolin

The installation instructions are for the following Canon printers:

  • Canon iP100 Ubuntu Driver –  cnijfilter-ip100series
  • Canon iP1800 Ubuntu Driver – cnijfilter-ip1800series
  • Canon iP1000 Ubuntu Driver – cnijfilter-pixmaip1000series
  • Canon iP1500 Ubuntu Driver – cnijfilter-pixmaip1500series
  • Canon iP1900 Ubuntu Driver – cnijfilter-ip1900series
  • Canon iP 2200 Ubuntu Driver – cnijfilter-ip2200series
  • Canon iP2500 Ubuntu Driver – cnijfilter-ip2500series
  • Canon iP2600 Ubuntu Driver – cnijfilter-ip2600series
  • Canon iP2700 Ubuntu Driver – cnijfilter-ip2700series
  • Canon iP3300 Ubuntu Driver – cnijfilter-ip3300series
  • Canon iP3500 Ubuntu Driver – cnijfilter-ip3500series
  • Canon iP3600 Ubuntu Driver – cnijfilter-ip3600series
  • Canon iP4200 Ubuntu Driver – cnijfilter-ip4200series
  • Canon iP4500 Ubuntu Driver – cnijfilter-ip4500series
  • Canon iP4700 Ubuntu Driver – cnijfilter-ip4700series
  • Canon iP4800 Ubuntu Driver – cnijfilter-ip4800series
  • Canon iP5200 Ubuntu Driver – cnijfilter-ip5200series
  • Canon iP6600 Ubuntu Driver – cnijfilter-ip6600series
  • Canon iP7500 Ubuntu Driver – cnijfilter-ip7500series

Add the repository and update the system:

$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:michael-gruz/canon-trunk
$ sudo apt-get update

For Ubuntu 14.04 Trusty Tahr ONLY, you need the libtiff4 library which is not available via the default repositories, but we can download it from the Debian Sid sources.

Download and install the libtiff4 library, for either 32 bit and 64 bit systems:

How to install the libtiff4 library on 32 bit Ubuntu 14.04 system:

$ wget http://cz.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/pool/universe/t/tiff3/libtiff4_3.9.7-2ubuntu1_i386.deb
$ sudo dpkg -i libtiff4_3.9.7-2ubuntu1_i386.deb
$ sudo apt-get install -f

How to install the libtiff4 library on 64 bit Ubuntu 14.04 system:

$ wget http://cz.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/pool/universe/t/tiff3/libtiff4_3.9.7-2ubuntu1_amd64.deb
$ sudo dpkg -i libtiff4_3.9.7-2ubuntu1_amd64.deb
$ sudo apt-get install -f

And install the drivers for your printer:

Canon iP100 Ubuntu Drivers:

$ sudo apt-get install cnijfilter-ip100series

Canon iP1800, iP1880, iP1890 Ubuntu Drivers:

$ sudo apt-get install cnijfilter-ip1800series

Canon iP1000 Ubuntu Drivers:

$ sudo apt-get install cnijfilter-pixmaip1000series

Canon iP1500 Ubuntu Drivers:

$ sudo apt-get install cnijfilter-pixmaip1500series

Canon iP1900 Ubuntu Drivers:

$ sudo apt-get install cnijfilter-ip1900series

Canon iP2200 Ubuntu Drivers:

$ sudo apt-get install cnijfilter-ip2200series

Canon iP2500 Ubuntu Drivers:

$ sudo apt-get install cnijfilter-ip2500series

Canon iP2600 Ubuntu Drivers:

$ sudo apt-get install cnijfilter-ip2600series

Canon iP2700 Ubuntu Drivers:

$ sudo apt-get install cnijfilter-ip2700series

Canon iP3300 Ubuntu Drivers:

$ sudo apt-get install cnijfilter-ip3300series

Canon iP3500 Ubuntu Drivers:

$ sudo apt-get install cnijfilter-ip3500series

Canon iP3600 Ubuntu Drivers:

$ sudo apt-get install cnijfilter-ip3600series

Canon iP4200 Ubuntu Drivers:

$ sudo apt-get install cnijfilter-ip4200series

Canon iP4500 Ubuntu Drivers:

$ sudo apt-get install cnijfilter-ip4500series

Canon iP4700 Ubuntu Drivers:

$ sudo apt-get install cnijfilter-ip4700series

Canon iP4800 Ubuntu Drivers:

$ sudo apt-get install cnijfilter-ip4800series

Canon iP5200 Ubuntu Drivers:

$ sudo apt-get install cnijfilter-ip5200series

Canon iP6600D Ubuntu Drivers:

$ sudo apt-get install cnijfilter-ip6600dseries

Canon iP7500 Ubuntu Drivers:

$ sudo apt-get install cnijfilter-ip7500series

Now plug in your Printer and enjoy!
Lima Kilo

Website Hosting also Free Choices

Nowadays I see a lot of folks talking about web hosting. Most of the time, people don’t know that different websites require different solutions and therefore different hosts. They also don’t know the difference between a host and a domain name, and that there are services for each one of those problems. Here I will try to tackle this a little bit and give you a few suggestions.Thus, by the end of this article, you should be able to answer the following questions on your own:

  • What is Web Hosting and Domain Naming?
  • Is a Domain Name absolutely necessary?
  • What are the main difference between Static Web pages and Dynamic We pages?
  • Is my website static or dynamic?
  • What free solution should I pick to host my website?


For the purpose of this article, we will use the following definitions of web hosting and domain naming as follows:

Web Hosting

Consists in hosting and keeping files and data for websites, in machines called servers, that give away part of they available disk space to maintain the data. Web servers also provide internet access, which can be payed separately.

Domain Name

A name owned by a person or a company, made of a string composed by letters, number and special characters, used as an internet address that identifies the location of specific webpages.

So, now that we have these two aspects defined let’s see how they play together. A Web Hosting service, will give you a machine with a connection to the internet, where you can put your website’s data. Because the machine is connected to the internet, everyone can access it’s contents by using the machine’s IP address. However, IP numbers are long sequences, and are also very hard for people to memorize. To fix this problem, the Domain Name System was created. Shortly put, this system maps IP numbers, to website names that you can memorize.

Your needs

So, now that you know that Web Host service will give you a computer (server) to store data, and a Domain Name service will map the server’s IP address into a name that people can memorize, it is time to understand what your web site needs.

To know what your website needs, you must know the type of your website. Websites are made of Web Pages, and there are two main types of these:

  1. Static Web page: Also called flat page/stationary page, this is usually a web page that never changes, and that presents the same content in the same way to all users no matter what. Static Web pages are usually made using only HTML and CSS, and are the easiest to create because they don’t require databases, nor advanced programming skills. Some Static Web Pages can also use javascript and jquery to present content, but there is never the need to store data from the user in any case. To deploy a static Web page, all you need to do is to place your files in a server connected to the internet.
  2. Dynamic Web Page: A dynamic web page is generated in real-time. These pages usually include web scripting code and require access to databases in order to keep and manage information from users or programs. These Web pages usually use frameworks, and languages like Ruby, PHP, Python, Java, Javascript and so on to make the communication with the server’s local database easier.

With this information we can then make the following statement: If a Website contains one or more Dynamic Web pages, it is a dynamic website, otherwise it is a Static Website.

Overall, Static Websites are easier to create, and are ideal for beginners. Dynamic websites, require more knowledge and are harder to create, but they are a lot easier to maintain then static websites due to all the automation they have.
The list of advantages and disadvantages between static and dynamic websites goes longer, but these are the basics you need to know.

Your choices

So, now that you probably know the type of website you are building, it’s time to evaluate the market that exists. The important thing here is the type of Web hosting service that you will need. Some web hosts only allow for static web sites, while others also allow for dynamic.
Domain Name services are independent of your web host, however, sometimes the web host company also provides an integrated web naming service that you can use.

Free Web Hosting for Static Websites:

Free Web Hosting for Dynamic Websites:

All these web hosts will make your webpage available online for everyone for free, however they will create very long and horrible links for your websites. This is where Domain Naming comes in.

Free Domain Naming services:

Using Custom Domain with Google Drive:

Using a Custom Domain with Dropbox:

An alternative to choosing a domain and a name for your website is also URL shortening:

Free URL shorteners services:

For more information about this section, please visit the Sources Section.


By now you should be able to answer the formulated questions presented in the introduction. Web hosts provide servers that can hold your data and are connected to the internet. Domain Names are pretty much “masks” that map IP addresses and other horrible long names into string that people can actually memorize. URL shorteners can therefore be seen as a sort of Domain Naming service, provided of course that you can actually memorize the URL they give you.
Last but not least, the more complex your website is, the more complete the service you rent must be. Dynamic websites many times require complex online platforms such as Heroku or Google Apps to be deployed, and there are many others out there depending on the language set you use.



Web hosting: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_hosting_service
Web hosting: http://www.w3schools.com/hosting/default.asp
Domain Name: http://www.techterms.com/definition/domain_name
Domain Name: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/domain+name
IP address: http://www.techterms.com/definition/ipaddress
Domain Name System: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Domain_Name_System

Your Needs:

Static Web Page: http://www.techterms.com/definition/staticwebsite
Static Web Page: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Static_web_page
Dynamic Web Page: http://www.techterms.com/definition/dynamicwebsite
Dynamic Web Page: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dynamic_web_page
Static website’s advantages, disadvantages and examples: http://nellen.co.za/static-websites
Dynamic vs Static Websites, what’s the difference?: http://www.edinteractive.co.uk/article/?id=4

Your Choices:

Dropbox free web Hosting: http://www.groovypost.com/howto/host-simple-website-dropbox-free-hosting/
Best free Domain Naming services: http://www.prchecker.info/web-hosting/best-free-domain-name-services/
How to Host a Website on Google Drive : http://www.codeitpretty.com/2013/03/how-to-host-website-on-google-drive.html
Extra URL shortners: http://www.webdevelopersnotes.com/resources/shorten-url.php

Special Thanks


Hope that helps.

Lima Kilo

Finding a computer’s model using command prompt & terminal

Follow me on twitter 🚀

May be you want to find out the drivers for your PC and you need to be specific, you have to have the model of your PC. It’s fairly simple.

A. On Windows Command Prompt:

wmic csproduct get name

On my machine that returns two lines, one saying Name and another with my machine’s model name:

Dell Inspiron 15 N5040

Now that’s cool!!

B. For Linux Terminal:

sudo dmidecode | grep -A3 '^System Information'


This is what you get:


Hope it helped.


Follow me on twitter 🚀

Lima Kilo

To All First Years!!


When we join campus,we get to embrace, wait. We have no choice but to embrace what is happening around us. By that I mean, the Technology bit where you get a whole room of first years with laptops, a sound system and to make it worse, the talk geek. So how do you adapt. Interact with them, they usually don’t bit and they make come out as arrogant but in the long run, if you know how compromise, you will learn a lot.

These are the Tech items you really need in first year:


  1. Flash Disk preferably 8GB and above. Why that big? Yes, we want to also copy movies to watch other than notes and assignments. I don’t encourage you copy your friends’ assignment but if you are referring, that’s fine with me. Please don’t buy cheap fake one.
  2. Smart Phone. When I say smart phone, please don’t assume I mean those china phones with aerials, shiny silver plastic phones with these weird interface that has all in one features. No no. I mean the ones with Big brand names that are common like Samsung, Sony, LG, Nokia, HTC (if you have that much cash) and etc. These phones is like your laptop, in fact it is your laptop! You can do anything with it! Watch Movies, play games (CandyCrush, Flappy Bird), watch movies in the landscape rotation, music, you download stuff and the greatest of all *drum rolls* DO ASSIGNMENTS in it!!!! That I learnt waaay before I got my laptop.
  3. Original USB Cable. If you have the smartphone, use the usb it came with. If you don’t, please don’t steal. It’s quite painful to find an original one. If you don’t have an original, go to a technology shop and buy one. You will always know how to differentiate a fake one.
  4. Phone Memory Card. Again it is same as Flash Disk but very mobile.
  5. Location of Computer Lab. Needless to say, the phone can be annoying and the wireless connection in the school can be down and you need to send an email or check what’s new on facebook. But please NEVER copy anything from the computers in the Computer Lab. NEVER! If you love yourself, leave alone others, don’t even let that thought of transferring data from them cross your mind. Free advice there. 🙂
  6. Laptop. As eager as you are to know what about the laptop am going to write, you will get your answers finally. It all depends with the company you have who will influence you in the choice of laptop you get. Be it friends from home, school, relatives, your boyfriend (a girl can’t influence the choice of a dudes laptop, no offence. UNLESS she’s your big sister.) and lastly for the wise, those who Google the question. For me being a smart guy together with my roommate,we went to inquire from the Chairmain of our Department. For my roommate, he still says he will buy the laptop ( 3 years later!!). Here comes the biggest mistake. Please DON’T forget to mention either to Google or to whoever you are asking for the advice, what you love. For me, am a Gamer and Coder. So I can say I got a laptop that plays low graphics game.
  7. All Wi-fi hotspots. This one is MANDATORY if you know that you have a purpose in life. Who lives without Internet Access?? Who? How do you know? Good question. You will see more than 5 guys on the same space or may be one selfish guy in a certain corner on their laptop who knows that place is a good hotspot and they won’t even sell that secret to anyone. Those will be where you will reside.
  8. A nocturnal body. Universities in Kenya are all the same. Internet is best at the wee hours of the morning. 1Am – 5am. If you need to sleep at that time, good for you. Benefits for the rest of us. I will give you this simple tip I got from the movie Undisputed 3. That reminds me I need to download it. Anyway, the quote goes like this: “Improvise, Adapt, Overcome.” Boyka was being advised by a Black-American Boxer.
  9. An extension Cable. Guys guys! The hotspots have few sockets. Lets share the electricity. Help a brother.
  10. I almost forgot! Headphones!! It won’t cost you more than Ksh.1000. It does two things, keeps you happy when browsing through the internet (music). Two, keeps your personal stuff to yourself. We are not interested in listening to what your listening to. Whether it’s a video or music.

In summary, this is a what I got to learn when I was in first year in Taveta, Kenya. Hope you will learn from all this.


Lima Kilo

How to create and run a collaboration effectively


This is a post written by Jacob Edie from Codecademy.

<< As more and more people finish codecademy it would be likely that many of them would want to work on collaborative projects together. Unfortunately, many users find themselves with lacking knowledge on how to create collaborative environments efficiently. Many collaboration proposals today only say things like “Let’s make a game!” or “let’s start a team or something…” without Adequate information on the collaboration, they plan on making. This Guide/ Tutorial explains on how to create successful collaborations that people will want to join and work on.


The very first thing you should do before creating a collaboration is to plan on what you hope to make, and what resources you will need to do so. Resources include:
• Amount of people
• Frameworks that you might use
• Software
• Collaborative tools such as Github, cloud9, google drive, pastebins, etc. (http://www.codecademy.com/groups/html-projects/discussions/51ea70889c4e9d0bbb002b70 )
• Computer languages your team will need to know
• Time
• Money


planning on what tools to use ahead of time is important and choosing the right tools will make your production go a lot smoother. I made a list tools you can use based on category. (Names with a “$” means they cost money usually on a monthly basis)

The Whole Package:
• Github- https://github.com/
• TeamBox$- http://teambox.com/
• BaseCamp$ – http://basecamp.com/
• ActiveCollab$ – https://www.activecollab.com//
• Photonotes- http://www.protonotes.com/
• ProjectPier- http://www.projectpier.org/
• BeanStalk – http://beanstalkapp.com/
• Jira$ – https://www.atlassian.com/software/jira

• OpenProj – http://sourceforge.net/projects/openproj/
• dotProject – http://www.dotproject.net/
• ganttproject- http://www.ganttproject.biz/
• consultcomm- http://consultcomm.sourceforge.net/
• taskjuggler- http://www.taskjuggler.org/
• collabtive – http://collabtive.o-dyn.de/?lang=en
• opengoo- http://www.fengoffice.com/web/
• Microsoft Excel
source: http://www.smashingapps.com/2010/02/15/10-free-tools-for-effective-project-management.html

• Skype – http://www.skype.com/en/
• Email – https://mail.google.com
• Google Hangouts- http://www.google.com/+/learnmore/hangouts/
• IRC – http://webchat.freenode.net/
• Cisco WebX – http://www.webex.com/
• Join Me – https://join.me/
• Moxtra – http://www.moxtra.com/
• Podio – https://podio.com/
• Yammer – https://www.yammer.com/

Sharing Code:
• Github – https://github.com/
• Cloud9 – https://c9.io/
• Koding – https://koding.com/
• PastBin – http://pastebin.com/
• Google code – https://code.google.com/
• BitBucket – https://bitbucket.org/
• Stypi – https://code.stypi.com/b8h97ita
Source: http://blog.monitor.us/2013/05/cc-in-review-4-online-collaboration-tools-for-developers/

Sharing Ideas:
• RealTime board – https://realtimeboard.com/
• Prezi – https://prezi.com/
• XMind – http://www.xmind.net/
• SpiderScribe – http://www.spiderscribe.net/
• Coggle – http://coggle.it/
• FreeMind – http://freemind.sourceforge.net/wiki/index.php/Main_Page
• Haiku Deck – http://www.haikudeck.com/
• See more here: http://mashable.com/2013/09/25/mind-mapping-tools/

• KickStarter – https://www.kickstarter.com/
• Indegogo- http://www.indiegogo.com/
• crowdFunder – https://www.crowdfunder.com/
• RocketHub – http://www.rockethub.com/
• appBacker – http://www.appbackr.com/
• finding sponsors – http://www.wikihow.com/Seek-Sponsorships

Balancing your project-

When coming up with ideas about your project it is important that you keep a level mind about how ambitious your project will be. Sure ambitious projects sound a whole lot more fun to make but once you get started does it dawn on you how much work your project will really require. That is why of instead of making large ambitious projects first you should start on small projects before going on to larger ones. Too many collaborations and personal projects aim too high to what the developers can actually achieve and are given up on. Here is a post on the unity forums that explains this nicely. Link


The second step to creating your collaboration is to recruit members to your team. You do this by either contacting the people you wish to recruit directly, or posting a way for people to sign on to your project through a forum. It is important that in both cases that you inform them thoroughly on what type of project you plan on making, and convince them that your project is worth devoting their time to.

Recruiting through a forum:

• Good for projects that need a fair amount of people
• More visibility
• People come to you to join instead of you going to them
• You don’t need to know personal contact details beforehand
• With popular collaborations it will be hard to look through all people wanting to join
• Not suited towards projects that you don’t want to disclose much information to the public
• You have to compete with other collaborations for attention

When creating your forum it is important, that you give adequate information about the project you are creating. Here is a little template you can use when creating collaborations:


this is the first thing people see so make sure it accurately describes your project and is short to the point
BAD TITLE: Looking for people to collab with!! (not descriptive enough)

GOOD TITLE: Recruiting Members to build a program to Find the Largest Prime Number (Waaaay too long)

BEST TITLE: COLLAB: Finding largest Prime Number (short, sweet, and to the point)


Explains what you plan to achieve with your collaboration or what it is about. This is the make it or break it moment for most people interested in your collaboration.

BAD INTRO: I was thinking about making a game. (There are many types of games)

OKAY INTRO: I was thinking like a space fighter game but actually, I think a 2d platformer would be better. Maybe even a sandbox game… (Lacks a clear goal)

BEST INTRO: AHOY maytes! Pirate simulator is a group project that focuses on teamwork and pushing your skills to the limit while creating a realistic pirate simulator game using html5 and JavaScript. In this game you are poor merchant that is looking for other ways to make a living it is then you notice the lucrative but dangerous life of a pirate. With your measly 12 crew members and your small, but fast trade boat you set sail to make it rich in the pirating business. However, this is no easy path; you will come across many challenges including: maintain your crew, enemy vessels, dribbling supplies, weather, wars, and many other challenges.
(perfectly explains what the collaboration project is about and also some features that will be made while keeping the reader engaged.)

Certifications to join (not required) –

this is where you tell the people interested in joining what they need to know before applying (can also be combined in roles) this can be determined by self-judging or series of tests that you might give them. This can be things such as age, time available, skill, experience, work effort, time zones, language, etc.
(there really is no correct or bad way to do this) example:

Applying for:
Time available:


roles help people know what their job is. It gives them a sense of purpose. It is important that everyone is clear what his or her role is in your collaboration. One person that does not have enough skill or determination at their role can slow down the entire project.

BAD ROLE LIST: we need:
Programmers: lots!! (What type of programmers? What skill level?)
Artists: about 1-10

GOOD ROLE LIST: we need:
JavaScript programmers 1-5 (how much skill?)
Web designers 3 (skill?)
Artists 5

BEST ROLE LIST: we need:
JS Leaders (1) (explains how many you need)
Show one of your best projects. Also familiar with Phaser.js

JS Devs (1-5)
Completed js track and is familiar with Phaser.js (shows what type of skill your looking for)

Html Lead(1)
Show best project. Good art skills would be nice

HTML Devs(10)
Completed web fundamentals
Php dev (2-4)
All skill levels (make sure to note the skill level you’re looking for even if you’re not looking for anything specific)

Testers (unlimited)
Good at explaining problems that you had playing the game

Past Projects (Optional)-

you would put this here to show that you have some skill and are serious about this project. This is especially important if your collaboration is quite ambitious and you need to earn some respect so people know that you have the driving will to put this project through. Make sure to post only the projects you are proud of here.

BAD EXAMPLE: look at this moving ball I made in 5min. (make sure you post actual projects and not small tests)

GOOD EXAMPLE: I created this platformer over the weekend. (Impressive but does not show your skill with working with a group)

BEST EXAMPLE: check out what I did with the last collaboration! (Shows that your last collaboration was a success and this one is just as likely to succeed also)

Where to post:

Once you have written your collaboration proposal it is now time to figure out where exactly to post it. It is important that you post in a forum that generally has members of the skill your project requires. Here are places you might consider:

Codecadmey Groups: the people here are relatively young and are still learning, although many of them would be very happy to join a collaboration of some sorts.

HTML5 Game Dev forums: many people here are roughly in their 20s and 30s and are quite skilled but most of them aren’t looking for any sort of collaboration unless there is money involved. Link: http://www.html5gamedevs.com/forum/6-collabs/

GitHub: one of the best places to find collaborations of all skill and age levels Link: https://github.com/

*If You Know Of Any more Sites Please Tell Me *

Recruiting Directly:

• Get absolute control of who you want to ask to join
• Possibly quicker startup time
• Great for private collaborations
• Suited for small collaborations
• Sometimes hard to get a hold of people
• Person might not be interested
• You need to know a lot of people to get a decent sized collaboration going

Just like getting together a collaboration on a forum it is important that the person you are contacting sees that your project is worthy of his/her time and effort. To contact someone directory it is important that you have their contact details such as their email. It is also important that you think the person would be interested to help with the project in the first place. In this guide we will be focusing on contacting through email. Here is a guide to help you along.


make sure your subject is catchy and concise you have to speak curiosity so the receiver is lured in. Mention the most important details first.


if you do not know this person very well it is important to use “Dear” or “To” but if you already familiar with this person it is okay to use “hello”. Or even just write their name with a comma ex: “Susan,”


make sure you are to the point. Write shorter active sentences instead of long passive sentences. Take out “and” to form two sentences. Give the eyes a rest. Create brief paragraphs to break up text. A solid block of text can be discouraging to read.


make sure to use “Best,” “Regards” or “Sincerely,” followed by your full name. Do not use “Cio” or “cheers”.

Rules to go by:

• Use proper spelling and grammar
• Avoid abbreviations
• Never pile up exclamation marks!!!
• If you have important points to make regarding email content, simply quote the selected text and respond in the line below.
• Avoid Emoticons such as 🙂

• Make sure your letter is under 2mb (you only have to worry about this if you have images or files attached to your email)

Other resources when writing an email:


Now that you have all your members, it is time to get to work! Here are some tips on making sure that everyone is productive.

Make Sure Everyone is On the Same Page-

This is the most important thing that needs to be done for your team to be successful. Make sure that everyone has the same goals. If everyone is working on what they think will make the project better and not working as a whole, there will be many conflicts within the group. To fix this, you need to discuss your long and short-term goals of the group also, how you are going to go about them and who is assigned to what.

Set Expectations-

Everyone needs to know what he or she is assigned to and when he or she needs to be done with what they are assigned. It is also important that all the code that is submitted to the project works and is formatted correctly if not they need to know where they can get help to fix the problem.

Be open about everything-

If somewhere in the project you are stuck or don’t know something don’t be afraid to ask your group. Just because you are the leader of the group does not mean you have to seem the smartest or most talented member of your group.

Hold Effective Team Meetings-

Make sure each team meeting is a productive one; before you start a meeting make sure you have a purpose for it. Another good tip is to set an agenda. This way you can measure the success of each meeting.

More tips for effective meetings: http://thebuildnetwork.com/team-building/brainwriting/

How to create an agenda: http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/rural/facts/05-037.htm

Source: http://quickbase.intuit.com/blog/2013/06/12/the-5-best-ways-to-collaborate-with-your-team/

What to do if your project begins failing-

sometimes a collaboration is not successful either because one your important members quit, team members lose excitement for the project, you didn’t plan ahead enough and many other factors. To fix this it is important to get together with your group and see if your collaboration can be repaired. Often collaborations that fail at one thing can continue in other forms. Sometimes relationships established in collaboration can lead to new collaborative effort. Check out this website to see things you need to watch out for during your collaboration: http://www.hunter.cuny.edu/socwork/ecco/coalition_project/j.htm


Congratulations! You have finished your collaboration! Now it is time to spread the word about what you have made. Here are some sites you can use to promote your creation:
• Best Codecademy Projects – why not share your work right here at Codecademy and get reviewed by your peers. Link: http://www.codecademy.com/groups/best-codecademy-projects/about

• HTML5 Game Dev forums – If the project you made was a html5 game than this is the perfect place to post. Link: http://www.html5gamedevs.com/forum/8-game-showcase/

• SourceForge – If your project happens to be an open source application this is one of the best places to put it.

• Bloggers – if you know any bloggers that would be interested in your project make sure to contact them and they might feature a blog on your team’s work http://www.rocknrollbride.com/2013/08/10-ways-to-make-all-bloggers-want-to-work-with-you/

• Create a website- make sure you have a home page. Where you can keep your project and any news or updates to it.
How to create a website: http://www.codecademy.com/groups/html-projects/discussions/5167394881c2702060000d1f

• Ads – if your collaboration was for commercial purposes then you might want to buy some advertisements. Link: http://www.google.com/adwords/?sourceid=awo&subid=ww-ns-g-awhp_nelsontest3_nel_p&clickid

Closing thoughts:

I hope that by now you have a good idea how much thought and dedication that goes into a collaboration. The main point I want to leave here is that collaborations are not for lazy people, most of the time it takes 10x more work to do a collaboration than it is to do it yourself. Being in a collaboration is probably the most enjoyable thing. Because you are making not only your dreams come true but also you get to be part of something larger than yourself.

Thanks for reading. I hope that this can be part of the growing list of tutorials on “Web Development Tutorials”. >>

*Also I am looking for more sites to put in the “Where to post section so if you have any suggestions please tell me.

“Open In Terminal” action in Ubuntu 14.04


When I was installing Whatsapp on my Ubuntu PC, there was a step where I had to “Open in Terminal” but my Ubuntu 14.04 had no such option, so I did some digging and this is how you do it.

nautilus-open-terminal and nautilus-actions packages are available in Universe repository of Ubuntu 14.04. So run the below commands to enable universe repository and also to install above mentioned packages.

sudo add-apt-repository universe
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install nautilus-open-terminal
sudo apt-get install nautilus-actions

Finally run

nautilus -q

command to quit nautilus. Now you can be able to see Open in terminal option on right-clicking.

Hope that helps.


Lima Kilo

Getting Dell Drivers


Dell is good brand for laptops, and because of the following reasons, we have to search for drivers on internet:

  1. Bought a new Dell laptop
  2. Reinstalled a new Windows OS

Well this is how you get your laptop up and working:

  1. Turn your laptop upside-down, for my laptop it was just directly straight from the lights, you will see “Made in China”, Write down the Model_Name. Mine is 15 N5040.
  2. Next, just below that code you will see Service Tag (S/N), also write that one down.
  3. Go to Google and type “Dell Drivers Model_Name Service_Tag site:www.dell.com/support/drivers/us/en/” The site is where Dell Drivers are located.1
  4. Click on the first link that appears on your results page.
  5. Copy paste the Service Tag into the area indicated below the Submit.2
  6. Now scroll down and on the Operating System, click on the drop-down menu and choose the one you have on your PC.3
  7. Wait 20seconds, depending on the INTERNET speed for the page to refresh, you will notice a slight change.
  8. Whatever driver your missing, you will get it below the under different categories: Application, Audio, BIOS, etc. Click on the category or just click on Show All to view the whole list. 4
  9. If you know what driver you want, click Download on it.
  10. Chill for it to download. After that, double-click on the downloaded setup and follow instructions ’till the end.

Hope that helps.




Lima Kilo

The most simple guide to Git Hub for absolute beginners


Intro to Git Hub

GitHub is a Web-based distributed version control hosting service for software development and code sharing.

GitHub offers free public repositories and collaborations for open-source software creation and charges small and large businesses for private repositories and collaboration. From a social perspective, GitHub allows users to change, adapt and improve software — each project is called a “fork” — in its public repositories. Users can work together in teams or alone. Public users create profiles which display repositories and public activity and help programmers find projects.

What is version control system and other terms regarding to it

Different people have different opinions:

  • Some says Git Hub is a Version Control System,
  • Some says Git Hub is a Revision Control System,
  • Some says Git hub is a Source Code Management System,
  • Some says Git Hub is a Source Control System,
  • Some says both terms Version Control System and Revision Control System are similar &
  • Some says they all are almost symmetric, so doesn’t matter what you call it.


Git Hub is a Distributed Version Control System.
Now then what are all the others?
So, let get a glimpse of every term mentioned above:

  1. Revision control. Deals with revisions (document/artifact reviews and subsequent versions of document/artifact) or numbers (as an abstraction of revision concept).
  2. Source control. Deals with text (source) files, not binary. This difference plays a great role as long as it is much more easier to perform comparison and get difference between text files. There is a whole range of basic tools related to source control: diff, diff3, patch, etc. This set of tools can be extended to form source control solution. Example of such solution is RCS.
  3. Source code management. Deals with more complex operations over the source code: storing it in a repository with the possibility of creating separate branches. It is also assumed that branches can be merged. Another part of source code management is tagging. One problem with source code management is that it has abbreviation SCM. This abbreviation is used to describe more broad set of activities – Software Configuration Management. There’s a lot of confusion because source code management is a subset of software configuration management which also deals with such activities as build management, deployment management, continuous integration, dependencies management, release management, etc.
  4. Version control. It is used as substitution for such term as source code management in order to avoid ambiguity. It incorporates both concepts of revision control and source control making it to describe almost the same concept. Currently, both terms revision control, source control are substituted with version control as more appropriate taking into account the wide range of tools (CVS, SVN, Git, Mercurial, ClearCase, Perforce, VSS, etc) which solve both tasks of revision control and source control simultaneously.

Picture to illustrate more clearly distinction between all of these concepts:


What is then Distributed mean in it?

Let’s break-down this topic in steps,

  1. Version Control If you are a graphic or web designer and want to keep every version of an image or layout (which you certainly would), it is very wise to use a Version Control System (VCS). A VCS allows you to: revert files back to a previous state, revert the entire project back to a previous state, review changes made over time, see who last modified something that might be causing a problem, who introduced an issue and when, and more. Using a VCS also means that if you screw things up or lose files, you can generally recover easily. In addition, you get all this for very little overhead.
  2. Local Version Control Systems

    Many people’s version-control method of choice is to copy files into another directory (perhaps a time-stamped directory, if they’re clever). This approach is very common because it is so simple, but it is also incredibly error prone. It is easy to forget which directory you’re in and accidentally write to the wrong file or copy over files you don’t mean to.To deal with this issue, programmers long ago developed local VCSs that had a simple database that kept all the changes to files under revision control.


  3. Centralized Version Control Systems
    The next major issue that people encounter is that they need to collaborate with developers on other systems. To deal with this problem, Centralized Version Control Systems (CVCSs) were developed. These systems, such as CVS, Subversion, and Perforce, have a single server that contains all the versioned files, and a number of clients that check out files from that central place. For many years, this has been the standard for version control.3
  4. Distributed Version Control Systems
    This is where Distributed Version Control Systems (DVCSs) step in. In a DVCS (such as Git, Mercurial, Bazaar or Darcs), clients don’t just check out the latest snapshot of the files: they fully mirror the repository. Thus if any server dies, and these systems were collaborating via it, any of the client repositories can be copied back up to the server to restore it. Every checkout is really a full backup of all the data.4

This is a post from Codecademy Community by Dipesh Bhardwaj


Hope you liked it!



Lima Kilo

Cannot Install Tor Browser Behind Proxy Ubuntu 14.04


When you install it the normal way then you encounter this kind of error:

Errors were encountered while processing:

Just follow the below steps to help you out.

Execute these commands in your Terminal  Ctrl + Alt + t:

sudo dpkg -r tor-browser tor-geoipdb
sudo apt-get install -f

You need to export your proxy environment variables using

export http_proxy=http://username:password@host:port/
export https_proxy=https://username:password@host:port/

and then tell sudo to use them using:

 sudo -E add-apt-repository ppa:webupd8team/tor-browser

Run these commands to install TOR:

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:webupd8team/tor-browser
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install tor-browser

Hope that helps you out.


Lima Kilo

Installing WhatsApp on Ubuntu/Windows PC

Follow me on twitter 🚀

First we install Genymotion in PC. Genymotion is a new, fast Android emulator developed by the French company Genymobile. It’s based on the open-source project AndroVM. It runs on all major platforms (Mac, Windows, Linux).:

  1. Sign up for the Genymotion account.
  2. After logging in download Genymotion from this link.
  3. Download and install Virtualbox from the this link.

Follow the install process:

For Windows

  1. Double click on .msi installer
  2. Choose the installer language (the Genymotion language depends of your system language) and click the “Next” button
  3. Click the “Next” button again
  4. Change the path if needed (the default path is C:\Program Files\Genymobile\Genymotion) then click the “Next” button
  5. Click the “Next” button again
  6. Choose whether or not to create desktop icon. Then click “Next” button
  7. Click the “Install” button
  8. Click the “Finish” button

For Linux:

Now navigate the Genymotion from the terminal.

Then enter the following commands in the terminal

  1. chmod +x [DOWNLOAD_PATH]/genymotion-[VERSION]_[ARCH].bin
  2. ./genymotion-[VERSION]_[ARCH].bin -d [YOUR_INSTALL_PATH]

It will ask for the installation like below screen shot.

After the process Genymotion it is ready to be used. to open it write below command


p style=”background-color:#c7c7c7;”>cd [YOUR_INSTALL_PATH]

Using GenyMotion:

Now login with your Genymotion username and password.


Click add from the Genymotion home screen. and Select a virtual device from the Genymotion cloud and click Add.


Now you can see the screen like below. You will be asked to enter a name for the Genymotion virtual device. Enter a name and select Next to begin the download of virtual device.

4The successful installation will display you the below screen.

Follow me on twitter 🚀



It will list the created virtual device in “Your virtual devices” in the home screen Then select play to start your virtual device.

As you can see I installed WhatsApp and used it:

1Now I show you how to download WhatsApp on the device.

  1. Go to the Default Android Browser and type “WhatsApp”, click on the Android one and download it and install.



  1. Open it after installation, put in your Country and key in your Phone number. Go to verify.


  1. Wait patiently for it to fail verification. You will receive a code on your phone. Key it in the space given. It will verify and there you go!!

Enjoy the WhatsApp on your PC.

Follow me on twitter 🚀


Lima Kilo

Resolving Blue Screen of Death errors in Windows


Blue Screen of Death (BSOD) errors (also sometimes called black screen errors or STOP code errors) can occur if a serious problem causes Windows to shut down or restart unexpectedly. You might see a message that says, “Windows has been shut down to prevent damage to your computer.” These errors can be caused by both hardware and software problems. So please make sure you shutdown correctly and don’t install softwares that are not necessary.

Now lets solve this issue.

Now these are the options of getting back your Windows to work:
1. Boot into Safe Mode.
If you can’t start (boot) your PC, follow these instructions to get to the Windows Recovery Environment.

  1. Do one of the following, depending on whether you have installation media (such as a DVD or USB flash drive):
  • If you have installation media for Windows 8.1, start (or boot) your computer from the installation media. Insert the DVD or USB flash drive and restart your computer. If you see a message asking you to “Press any key to boot from DVD,” do so. If you don’t see the message, you might need to change the boot order in your computer’s BIOS settings so that it first starts from the DVD or USB. When you see the Install Windows page, tap or click Repair your computer to start the Windows Recovery Environment.
  • If you don’t have installation media, use the power button to restart your computer three times. This will start the Windows Recovery Environment.
    2. In the Windows Recovery Environment, on the Choose an option screen, tap or click Troubleshoot.
    3. Tap or click Startup Settings.If you don’t see Startup Settings, tap or click Advanced options, and then tap or click Startup Settings.
    4. Tap or click Restart, and then wait while your computer restarts.
    5. On the Startup Settings screen, choose an option.(Safe Mode)
    6. Sign in to your computer with a user account that has administrator rights.

    For HP guys, go to: http://goo.gl/bdfawj
    For Toshiba guys, go to: http://goo.gl/lIZyGR >> Option 3
    For Dell guys, go to: http://goo.gl/JUL7ut
    For Acer guys, go to : http://goo.gl/tue2Pb

    2. Restore Windows to an earlier point in time

    You can restore Windows back to an earlier point in time, called a restore point. System Restore doesn’t change your personal files, but it might remove recently installed apps and drivers.
    In operating systems earlier than Windows 8:

  • Open Control Panel, then type system restore in the search box. In the returned results, click Create a restore point, then click System Restore in the dialog box that comes up, and follow the instructions.
    In Windows 8 and Windows 8.1

    1. Swipe in from the right edge of the screen, and then tap Search.  (If you’re using a mouse, point to the upper-right corner of the screen, move the mouse pointer down, and then click Search.)
    2. Enter Control Panel in the search box, and tap or click Control Panel.
    3. Enter Recovery in the Control Panel search box, and then tap or click Recovery.
    4. Tap or click Open System Restore, and then follow the instructions.

Additional Notes but key:

Before and After even you get the BSOD make sure you:

A)Get latest Updates:
Follow the steps for your version of Windows.In operating systems earlier than Windows 8

Click the Start button Picture of the Start button, click All Programs, and then click Windows Update.
In Windows 8 and Windows 8.1

  1. Swipe in from the right edge of the screen, tap Settings, and then tap Change PC settings.(If you’re using a mouse, point to the upper-right corner of the screen, move the mouse pointer down, click Settings, and then click Change PC settings.)
  2. Tap or click Update and recovery, and then tap or click Windows Update.
  3. Tap or click Check now, and then wait while Windows looks for the latest updates for your PC.
  4. If Windows finds updates, tap or click Install updates. Administrator permission required You might be asked for an admin password or to confirm your choice. Read and accept the license terms, and then tap or click Finish if the update requires it. Windows Update will tell you if it successfully installed the updates.

B) Test your hard drive.

Run the “chkdsk” function on your hard drive to scan for errors and fix potential problems. A failing hard drive can cause Blue Screens due to corrupted files. To run chkdsk, open Computer/My Computer and right-click the disk that you want to scan.

Select Properties.
From the Properties screen, select the Tools tab.
Click Check Now in the Error Checking section. Your computer will prompt you to restart in order to scan the disk.

C) Run a virus scan.
Sometimes viruses and malware are at the root of a Blue Screen problem. Make sure that you have the latest antivirus software installed, and perform a full system scan to find anything that could be causing problems.
D) Perform a Repair Installation of Windows.
This is a quick alternative to completely reinstalling Windows, as it only copies system files to your computer. This is useful if an essential file has become corrupt and is causing your computer to fail.

To perform a repair installation, insert your Windows disc or use a bootable USB with Windows OS and boot from it. In the setup menu, select Repair Installation. Windows will delete old Windows files and copy new ones. You will not lose any personal data.
E) Delete files using Disk Cleanup
To delete files
The following procedure deletes files associated with your user account. You can also use Disk Cleanup to delete system files on your PC.

To open Disk Cleanup from the desktop, swipe in from the right edge of the screen, tap Settings (or if you’re using a mouse, point to the lower-right corner of the screen, move the mouse pointer up, and then click Settings), tap or click Control Panel, type Admin in the Search box, tap or click Administrative Tools, and then double-tap or double-click Disk Cleanup.

  1. In the Drives list, choose the drive you want to clean, and then tap or click OK.

  2. In the Disk Cleanup dialog, select the checkboxes for the file types that you want to delete, tap or click OK, and then tap or click Delete files.

To delete system files
The following procedure deletes system files on your PC. This option, in addition to cleaning up the files associated with your account, allows you to delete previous Windows installations, Windows Defender files, and Windows upgrade log files that you might no longer need.

  1. To open Disk Cleanup from the desktop, swipe in from the right edge of the screen, tap Settings (or if you’re using a mouse, point to the lower-right corner of the screen, move the mouse pointer up, and then click Settings), tap or click Control Panel, type Admin in the Search box, tap or click Administrative Tools, and then double-tap or double-click Disk Cleanup.
  2. In the Drives list, tap or click the drive that you want to clean up, and then tap or click OK.
  3. In the Disk Cleanup dialog box, tap or click Clean up system files. Administrator permission required You might be asked for an admin password or to confirm your choice.
  4. In the Drives list, choose the drive you want to clean, and then tap or click OK.
  5. In the Disk Cleanup dialog box, select the checkboxes for the file types you want to delete, tap or click OK, and then tap or click Delete files.
  6. If you want to free up even more space on your PC, tap or click More Options and choose from the options:

Programs and Features. Uninstall programs you no longer use. The Size column shows how much space each program uses.
System Restore and Shadow Copies. Delete all but the most recent restore point on the drive. System Restore uses restore points to return your system files to an earlier point in time. If your PC is running normally, you can save space by deleting the earlier restore points. In some editions of Windows, restore points can include previous versions of files, known as shadow copies, and backup images. These files and images will also be deleted.


Hope that helps.





p style=”text-align:right;”>Lima Kilo

Instagram on your PC & Downloading Instagram Pics



As a Techie, am used to downloading new software that I come across and see how it helps me achieve what I want. I have no idea how I came across Pixsta. We all are, most of us btw are, on Instagram. I usually check out, on Instagram, very beautiful photos that I wish I could have them on my PC just to show people how creative and gifted guys are, I follow them, and they always follow me back 🙂 .

NB: Please, if you are a stalker, this is not a post for you. You will be jailed because you will turn out like this guy in Mariah Carey’s song “Obsessed”. He was weird. Even you ladies, Instagram is purely private but public at the same time which doesn’t make sense at all. Bottom line, be warned.

Anyway, I installed this application authored by SweetLabs, Inc. that leaves me smiling :). It has a fast image display and video playback and the best thing about it is… I CAN DOWNLOAD THE PHOTOS ON INSTAGRAM!!!


Just follow the instructions to install Pixsta:

  1. Open Pixsta site and download Pokki/ Pixsta Installer for FREE!!!
  2. The moment Pixsta completes download, install it.
  3. You will be prompted for login details, if you haven’t registered, please do.
  4. Hoping you still have connected internet service, you will enjoy the app.

Now for downloading a picture,I had to use these two pictures that I loved among others and my friend Joan (Instagram) took them during the Mavumbini Derby match (Wazee vs Vijana):




It’s AWESOME! I know 🙂

  1. Click on the photo that you like or love.
  2. When it pops out, take your mouse to the bottom of the picture until the Download appears.
  3. Click on it and your happy.




Lima Kilo

Downloading Android Apps on PC to save on your Mobile Data Bundles


Hi people. It’s now 12:27am in the morning. Very cold.. I can hardly feel my fingers as they press hard on my keyboard, shivering! Waaar! Anyway, a year ago I got fed up buying bundles just to download an app which after no satisfaction, I deleted it after 2 hours. So I did some digging up and discovered there is always someone who went through this stress and decided to make my life and yours a bit bearable. Follow keenly:


I. Go to: APK Downloader.

screenshotII. Next Go to: Google Playstore




III. In the search box, type the app name and click on search. I searched for Instagram so here it looks like:



IV. Copy the URL on the playstore site and paste it on the apk downloader site:



V. Click on “Generate Download Link”. Then click on “download com.instagram.android”.

VI. After complete download, transfer the app which has an extension “.apk” to your phone. Install it from there.

NB: Sign in into the PlayStore with your Gmail account which your phone uses to view whether the app is compatible or not.





Lima Kilo


IDM for Educational Purpose


Disclaimer: This should be for educational purpose. We at times get frustrated of how to get some online materials like tutorials, pictures… just any kind of file you want to put on your PC. Now the problem begins when you get the best downloader (IDM) and… it EXPIRES!!! You get this error: idmexpire For this reason, we are forced to get frustrated, very frustrated:

courtesy of mohammad_mubasshir

courtesy of mohammad_mubasshir

.. and this, leads to loss of hair, bones become brittle, skin becomes loose, teeth fall out.. wait, those are effects of ageing. 🙂 But all in all, frustration leads to ageing. So on the sidebar, please go to a laptop to view the sidebar if using phone or tablet scroll to the bottom of this page,  you will find the IDM link. Download it. Enjoy! Cheers!

Lima Kilo

How to get the latest definition updates for Windows Defender


This article describes how to update your Microsoft Windows Defender in two ways:

A) Force a daily update

If you want Windows to update your software, go to Windows Update or:

a. Open your Microsoft security software.

b. Click the Update tab.

c. Click the Update button.

Usually, updating once a day gives you a good level of protection, and it prevents us from constantly updating your software and interfering with how you use your PC.


B) Manually download the latest updates

Sometimes you might want to update more often. This can be helpful if you have hard-to-remove malware, Windows update isn’t working properly, or you aren’t always connected to the Internet.

To download these updates, Check whether your version of Windows is 32-bit or 64-bit.

I) To download the Windows Defender definition update file for 32-bit (x86-based) versions of Windows, follow these steps:
1. Click the following link:  http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?linkid=70631

2. In the download dialog box, click either Run or Save.



  • Click Run to install the definition file immediately.
  • Click Save to save the definition file to the computer. To install the saved definition update file, click Start, click Run, locate the folder where you saved the definition file, double-click the Mpas-fe.exe file, and then click OK.
  1. When the definition file runs, a file extraction dialog box appears. The dialog box indicates that the definition update is installing. After the file extraction dialog box closes, to verify that the Windows Defender definitions are updated, follow these steps:
  • Start Windows Defender.
  • Check the definition version that is listed in the box at the bottom of the Windows Defender Home dialog box.


II) To download the Windows Defender definition update file for x64-based versions of Windows, click the following link: http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?linkid=70632 and follow the above steps.

Hope it helped.


Lima Kilo

How to Download YouTube Videos


<This is only for academic purpose>

YouTube has been designed to only allow users to watch and view videos on their website. Many users want to save their favourite videos to their computer so they can watch them without being connected to the Internet or so they can watch them on other devices. Below are the steps required for downloading and watching YouTube videos on your computer for free. I will these are my best two:
1. SaveDeo makes the process a bit easier by offering native support for services like Instagram, Flickr, YouTube, Vimeo, Facebook, TED, Vevo and others. It works like a charm, and is especially useful if you are in a region where certain videos aren’t supported. You can just download and watch them instead of streaming. Awesome!



How to download a video from YouTube from SaveDeo
i. Choose any video you like (works even for non-public videos)
ii. Copy the link from the video page.
2iii. Paste the link into the input Savedeo Page and click download.
iv. Select a format
v. Wait until the video will be downloaded
vi. Play in your favorite player. If it doesn’t work, use VLC

2. Savefrom helps to download from more than 40+ websites, including Youtube, Vimeo, dailymotion, Rapidshare… To download using it, just follow the same above process.


Hope you enjoyed.

Lima Kilo


How to use info_hash OR torrent hash to download torrents

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info_hash is the 20 byte sha1 hash of the bencoded form of the info value from the metainfo file. Note that this is a substring of the metainfo file. Torrents have an info_hash or and torrent hash that represents the torrent as a whole with all its files (it’s actually a hash of the “info” section of the original torrent file), and is calculated using SHA1 encryption. I know the technical bit is not interesting, but a little introduction won’t harm. So today I will show you how to download files using info_hash just in case you don’t come across a magnet link in the torrent page that has your file.

It all started when I wanted to add more albums to my music Library. As a good “googler”, I searched for the name of the album and added the word “torrent” to be specific to the search engine. To my shock, the file was listed in a torrent site which was new to me. Going deep, No Magnet link….Now what? Went through the page and came across “info_hash”. Looked intriguing to me. Looked it up and life became easy as it will for you.

Follow these steps:

I. Go to the Online Magnet Link Generator:

Magnetic Link Generator romanr  II. Copy the info_hash or Torrent hash. The pictures are examples of info_hash

info hash Torrent Hash Torrent Tracker Info Hash Info Hash Base-16, Info Hash Base-32

Info Hash Number

Tip: When you see that the file your looking for has no seeders, Copy and Paste the info_hash into the search engine input box and look through the results for the ones that have seeders. As shown below: 

Seeders Lecchers Info Hash

The above site has no seeds, so I looked through other links on the results page of the search engine and got the below one which had at least a seeders.

torrentusIII. Paste it on the Online Magent Link Generator on the new opened tab.

Online Magnet Link Generator ConverterIV. Copy the name of your file as it is on your torrent site to the torrent name input.

Online Magnet Link Generator Converter Torrent NameV. Now click on Generate to get the Magnet Link.

Magnetic Link Generator ConverterVI To download the files, follow the instructions on this page on this blog: Downloading Torrents Without a Torrent Client but with IDM

Hope you enjoyed.

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If it helped you out, please don’t forget to like and share 🙂


Lima Kilo

Downloading Torrents Without a Torrent Client but with IDM

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<This is for educational purpose only>

I hope that there is no need of explaining about torrent files. With the help of torrent serving clients, you can download any large files without any extra cost rather than the bandwidth. You may noticed that torrent files getting seeding after you downloaded a file using utorrent or BitTorrent . These seeding makes the torrent file healthy. Be a seeder if you have unlimited internet access, don’t be a leech.

First situation, what to do if there are not enough seeders while you downloads a large file? Probably it makes the downloading speed very low.

Second situation, what if at your work place or school mostly they have blocked the downloading of torrents using the torrent serving clients?

In order to overcome this situation you can make use of online torrent clients which allows you to download file in any of the downloader including Internet Download Manager (IDM).

Today we are discussing about 5 websites which catches torrents and allows you to download the file directly on your favourite Download Manager (IDM) and the first one is my favourite.





  1. At first go to https://filestream.me
  2. Click to sign-up then sign up their site.
  3. Then confirm email verification.
  4. Click to login, then login with your email and password.
  5. After login you will see below page.. click to Upload .torrentfilestreamupload
  6. Then you will see a pop-up window such as below image. Paste Magnet link or link to .torrent file.  First take the mouse to the box then paste the magnet link. Click Download. Wait some moment , you see file details.FileStream Popup
  7. Now the torrent is uploading into filestream site , wait a minute. Complete catching torrent. When catch is complete, you will see file size, expiration time and download button. See the below image carefully. I had uploaded three torrent files and the highlighted is the one I am currently uploading. FileStream download
  8. Now click the 1st icon in the last column (above picture) and a pop-up window will appear. Now click first icon (below picture) and your download will start with IDM in a zip format.FileStream zip


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Zbigz is one of the popular Bittorrent client allows you to download Torrent files in any Download Manager or Within Web Browser. You can either paste the torrent magnetic link or upload torrent file directly.


  1. Go to torrent sites like Kickass or other torrent sites .
  2. Copy magnet link address of torrent files or simply download torrent file.magnetlink
  3. Then, go to http://www.zbigz.com/ , make your free account, and paste your torrent link address.
  4. Zbigz.com will download torrent file on its own server with lightening speed.
  5. When download is complete on Zbigz.com, click on the downloaded file on server and download it.
  6. Your download will start, Done.


Putdrive download

Putdrive.com is a new online cloud storage and download service that allows you to download files from torrents, video sharing sites, and over 80 different file hosters! It’s a combo solution worth trying out. How to download Torrents using Putdrive.

ByteBX   Online storage

Bytebx.com, you can download file of size more than 1 gb. It has also better download speed compared to Zbigz. Download Torrents as Direct Links with ByteBx



The Basic Concept behind boxopus is same as that of zbigz. You just need to upload the torrent file. One problem of boxopus that zbigz is you need an dropbox account for downloading files from boxopus.

Now we can listen to music, watch movies and play games. But don’t forget the free accounts have limits.

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Lima Kilo